Index for glossary H
In computer security, a hacker is someone with a strong interest in understanding and manipulating computer systems, and specialises in work with the security mechanisms for these systems. Nowadays, it is most commonly used by the mass media to refer to a person who maliciously uses computer knowledge to gain unauthorised access and cause damage to computers and data.
This is a hardware device that contains a protected cryptographic key that cannot be exported.
Hardening is a process to secure a system, including an operating system or servers such as web servers, by removing the unnecessary system components, disabling unnecessary services, tightening the system configurations, etc.
A function that maps a bit string of arbitrary length to a fixed length bit string. Approved hash functions satisfy the following properties:
1) One-Way. It is computationally infeasible to find any input that maps to any prespecified output.
2) Collision Resistant. It is computationally infeasible to find any two distinct inputs that map to the same output.
This is a technique for assessing the probability that a file contains a computer virus or other forms of malware.
This usually consists of an email message warning recipients about a new and terribly destructive virus. It ends by suggesting that the reader should warn his or her friends and colleagues, perhaps by simply forwarding the original message to everyone in their address book. The result is a rapidly growing proliferation of pointless emails that can increase to such an extent that they overload systems.
A honeypot is a decoy system put on a network as bait for attackers. The attackers believe the honeypot is a legitimate system and attack on it, without being known that their activities are being monitored.
In a honeynet, a network of honeypots is connected to imitate an actual or fictitious network. It appears to attackers that many different types of applications are available on several different platforms.